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IdTitleAuthorsAbstractPictureThematic fieldsRecommenderReviewersSubmission date
13 Nov 2023
STAGE 2
(Go to stage 1)
toto

Convenience Samples and Measurement Equivalence in Replication Research

Data from students and crowdsourced online platforms do not often measure the same thing

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Benjamin Farrar and Shinichi Nakagawa

Comparative research is how evidence is generated to support or refute broad hypotheses (e.g., Pagel 1999). However, the foundations of such research must be solid if one is to arrive at the correct conclusions. Determining the external validity (the generalizability across situations/individuals/populations) of the building blocks of comparative data sets allows one to place appropriate caveats around the robustness of their conclusions (Steckler & McLeroy 2008).

In the current study, Alley and colleagues (2023) tackled the external validity of comparative research that relies on subjects who are either university students or participating in experiments via an online platform. They determined whether data from these two types of subjects have measurement equivalence - whether the same trait is measured in the same way across groups.

Although they use data from studies involved in the Many Labs replication project to evaluate this question, their results are of crucial importance to other comparative researchers whose data are generated from these two sources (students and online crowdsourcing). The authors show that these two types of subjects do not often have measurement equivalence, which is a warning to others to evaluate their experimental design to improve validity. They provide useful recommendations for researchers on how to to implement equivalence testing in their studies, and they facilitate the process by providing well annotated code that is openly available for others to use.

After one round of review and revision, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 2 criteria and awarded a positive recommendation.

URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/7gtvf
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 2. At least some data/evidence that was used to answer the research question had been accessed and partially observed by the authors prior to Stage 1 IPA, but the authors certify that they had not yet observed the key variables within the data that were used to answer the research question AND they took additional steps to maximise bias control and rigour.
 
List of eligible PCI RR-friendly journals:
 
 
References
 
1. Pagel, M. (1999). Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature, 401, 877-884. https://doi.org/10.1038/44766
 
2. Steckler, A. & McLeroy, K. R. (2008). The importance of external validity. American Journal of Public Health 98, 9-10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.126847
 
3. Alley L. J., Axt, J., & Flake J. K. (2023). Convenience Samples and Measurement Equivalence in Replication Research [Stage 2 Registered Report] Acceptance of Version 2 by Peer Community in Registered Reports​. https://osf.io/s5t3v
Convenience Samples and Measurement Equivalence in Replication ResearchLindsay J. Alley, Jordan Axt, Jessica Kay Flake<p>A great deal of research in psychology employs either university student or online crowdsourced convenience samples (Chandler &amp; Shapiro, 2016; Strickland &amp; Stoops, 2019) and there is evidence that these groups differ in meaningful ways ...Social sciencesCorina Logan Alison Young Reusser2023-08-31 20:26:43 View
08 Nov 2023
STAGE 2
(Go to stage 1)
toto

Responding to Online Toxicity: Which Strategies Make Others Feel Freer to Contribute, Believe That Toxicity Will Decrease, and Believe that Justice Has Been Restored?

Benevolent correction may provide a promising antidote to online toxicity

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Corina Logan and Marcel Martončik
Social media is a popular tool for online discussion and debate, bringing with it various forms of hostile interactions –  from offensive remarks and insults, to harassment and threats of physical violence. The nature of such online toxicity has been well studied, but much remains to be understood regarding strategies to reduce it. Existing theory and evidence suggests that a range of responses – including those that emphasise prosociality and empathy – might be effective at mitigating online toxicity. But do such strategies work in practice?
 
In the current study, Young Reusser et al (2023) tested the effectiveness of three types of responses to online toxicity – benevolent correction (including disagreement), benevolent going along (including joking/agreement) and retaliation (additional toxicity) – on how able participants feel to contribute to conversations, their belief that the toxicity would be reduced by the intervention, and their belief that justice had been restored.
 
The results showed the benevolent correction – while an uncommon strategy in online communities – was most effective in helping participants feel freer to contribute to online discussions. Benevolent correction was also the preferred approach for discouraging toxicity and restoring justice. Overall, the findings suggest that responding to toxic commenters with empathy and understanding while (crucially) also correcting their toxicity may be an effective intervention for bystanders seeking to improve the health of online interaction. The authors note that future research should focus on whether benevolent correction actually discourages toxicity, which wasn't tested in the current experiment, and if so how the use of benevolent corrections might be encouraged.
 
Following one round of review and revisions, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 2 criteria and awarded a positive recommendation.
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/hfjnb
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that was used to answer the research question was generated until after IPA. 
 
List of eligible PCI RR-friendly journals:
 
References
 
1. Young Reusser, A. I., Veit, K. M., Gassin, E. A., & Case, J. P. (2023). Responding to Online Toxicity: 
Which Strategies Make Others Feel Freer to Contribute, Believe That Toxicity Will Decrease, and Believe that Justice Has Been Restored? [Stage 2 Registered Report] Acceptance of Version 2 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/k46e8
Responding to Online Toxicity: Which Strategies Make Others Feel Freer to Contribute, Believe That Toxicity Will Decrease, and Believe that Justice Has Been Restored?Alison I. Young Reusser, Kristian M. Veit, Elizabeth A. Gassin, and Jonathan P. Case<p>When we encounter toxic comments online, how might individual efforts to reply to those comments improve others’ experiences conversing in that forum? Is it more helpful for others to publicly, but benevolently (with a polite tone, demonstrated...Social sciencesChris Chambers2023-08-02 05:30:37 View
08 Nov 2023
STAGE 2
(Go to stage 1)
toto

Relationship between creativity and depression: the role of reappraisal and rumination

Evidence for a weak relationship between creativity and depressive traits

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO
For centuries, the relationship between creativity and mental health has been a subject of fascination, propelled by the impression that many of the most famous artists in history likely suffered from mood disorders or other mental illnesses. However, with the advent of psychological science – including more precise and diagnostic clinical measures – the empirical evidence for an association between creativity and depressive symptoms has been mixed, with some studies suggesting a positive relationship and others showing either no effect or indicating that the link, if there is one, may be driven by other personality characteristics (Verhaeghen et al., 2005).
 
In the current study, Lam and Saunders used an online design in 201 participants to ask whether creativity is associated with higher depressive traits, and further, whether that relationship depends on two additional variables that could explain an observed positive correlation: self-reflective rumination (repetitive thoughts that maintain a negative mood state) and the frequency with which individuals engage in reappraisal (a regulation strategy that involves reinterpreting an event or situation to diminish its negative impact).
 
Results showed mixed support for the hypotheses. Contrary to expectations, the relationship between creativity and depression was significantly negative rather than positive. However, even though the directionality of this relationship was opposite to predicted, the hypothesis that the association between creativity and depression is mediated by self-reflective rumination was supported. Finally, the results disconfirmed the hypothesis that reappraisal frequency contributes to the relationship between creativity and depression. Exploratory analyses indicated no reliable moderating role of gender. Overall, these findings suggest that creativity and depression may be only weakly related, and that self-reflective rumination could account for that relationship.
 
The Stage 2 manuscript was evaluated over one round of review provided by the recommender and Managing Board, as the Stage 1 reviewers were no longer available. Based on additional changes to the manuscript, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 2 criteria and awarded a positive recommendation.
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/yub7n
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that was used to answer the research question was generated until after IPA. 
 
List of eligible PCI RR-friendly journals:
 
References
 
1. Verhaeghen, P., Joormann, J., & Khan, R. (2005). Why we sing the blues: The relation between self-reflective rumination, mood, and creativity. Emotion, 5, 226-232. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.5.2.226
 
2. Lam, C. Y. & Saunders, J. A. (2023). Relationship between creativity and depression: the role of reappraisal and rumination [Stage 2 Registered Report]. Acceptance of Version 2 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/z3ap5
Relationship between creativity and depression: the role of reappraisal and ruminationChin Yui Lam and Jeffrey Allen Saunders<p>Previous research has found mixed evidence about whether increased creativity is associated with higher depression. We investigated the relationship between creativity and depression, and the role of two emotion regulation strategies: ruminatio...Social sciencesChris Chambers2023-07-27 11:42:43 View
30 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
toto

The role of spatial location in irrelevant speech revisited: A pre-registered replication

Does auditory stream segregation reduce the irrelevant speech effect?

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Massimo Grassi and 2 anonymous reviewers
The irrelevant-speech effect (ISE) is a laboratory phenomenon in which performance at memory recall is impaired by the presence of irrelevant auditory stimuli during the initial encoding phase. In a typical ISE experiment, participants are asked to remember a sequence of letters presented visually (e.g. F, K, L, M, Q, R, Y in a shuffled random order between trials) while irrelevant speech is played over headphones. The typical finding is that recall performance is impaired by the presentation of speech compared with silence. The ISE has been influential in cognitive psychology, prompting the advancement of two broad classes of competing explanations: one in which the irrelevant sounds gain automatic access to memory processes without any specified role for attentional selection, and another in which the ISE is explained by irrelevant speech drawing attention away from the relevant items to be recalled.
 
In the current study, Kattner et al. (2023) propose a replication of a seminal study by Jones and Macken (1995) that provided a foundation for the automatic access (or ‘interference-by-process’) class of theories. In their original set of experiments, Jones and Macken reported that the segregating individual components of the irrelevant speech (the spoken letters V, J, and X) into different lateralized locations reduced the magnitude of the ISE by converting a single ‘changing-state’ stream three separate ‘steady-state’ streams. Here, Kattner et al. ask firstly whether this classic finding can be successfully replicated in a well-powered sample, and secondly whether the streaming-by-location effect in Jones and Macken reduces the ISE to the same level as observed during a steady-state baseline condition in which a single letter is repeated from each location. If the answer to either question is No then doubts will have been raised about interference-by-process theories, opening the door (even more) to alternative theoretical explanations of the ISE.
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was evaluated over two rounds of in-depth review. Based on detailed responses to the reviewers' comments, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 1 criteria and therefore awarded in-principle acceptance (IPA).
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/2tb8e
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that will be used to answer the research question yet exists and no part will be generated until after IPA.
 
List of eligible PCI RR-friendly journals:
 

References
 
1. Jones, D. M. & Macken, W. J. (1995). Organizational factors in the effect of irrelevant speech: The role of spatial location and timing. Memory & Cognition, 23, 192–200. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197221 
 
2. Kattner, F., Hassanzadeh, M. & Ellermeier, W. (2023). The role of spatial location in irrelevant speech revisited: A registered replication of Jones and Macken (1995). In principle acceptance of Version 3 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/2tb8e
The role of spatial location in irrelevant speech revisited: A pre-registered replicationFlorian Kattner, Mitra Hassanzadeh, & Wolfgang Ellermeier<p>The goal of the present investigation is to perform a preregistered replication of Jones and Macken’s (1995b) study, which showed that the segregation of a sequence of sounds to distinct spatial locations reduced the detrimental effects of irre...Social sciencesChris Chambers2023-04-26 17:01:57 View
25 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
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Does pupillometry provide a valid measure of spatial attentional bias (pseudoneglect)?

Assessing visuospatial biases (pseudoneglect) using pupillometry: A replication and extension of Strauch et al. (2022)

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Christoph Strauch and Bianca Hatin
‘Pseudoneglect’ is a small, lateralised bias of visuospatial attention towards the left side of space, and is typically observed in healthy adults. Recently, Strauch et al. (2022) reported that bright stimuli presented in the left visual field induced a greater constriction of the pupil (the pupillary light reflex) compared to the same bright stimuli presented in the right visual field. Further, the pupillary restriction bias was positively correlated with a behavioural measure of pseudoneglect (the greyscales task). This is potentially an important development for attention research, because the passive nature of the task, in addition to the ability to track the time course of the bias measures, could provide a new, and highly sensitive, method of studying spatial attention.
 
In this report, Burns and McIntosh (2023) aim to replicate and extend the study of Strauch et al. (2022). The extension centres around investigating whether the pupillary biases are influenced by recording pupillary responses from the right or left eye. In their pilot replication data, Burns & McIntosh identified a larger constriction in response to stimuli on the right side when recording from the right eye. They hypothesise that pupillary biases may be stronger to stimuli presented in the ipsilateral, rather than contralateral, side of space.
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was reviewed over 2 rounds by 2 reviewers, including the authors of the study being replicated. Based on detailed responses to the reviewers’ comments and edits to the Stage 1 report, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 1 criteria and therefore awarded in-principle acceptance.
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/ua9jn

Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that will be used to answer the research question yet exists and no part will be generated until after IPA.
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
References
 
1. Strauch, C., Romein, C., Naber, M., Van der Stigchel, S. & Ten Brink, A. F. (2022). The orienting response drives pseudoneglect—Evidence from an objective pupillometric method. Cortex, 151, 259-271.
 
2. Burns, N. E. & McIntosh, R. D. (2023). Does pupillometry provide a valid measure of spatial attentional bias (pseudoneglect)? In principle acceptance of Version 2 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/ua9jn
Does pupillometry provide a valid measure of spatial attentional bias (pseudoneglect)?Nicola E. Burns, and Robert D. McIntosh<p>Strauch et al. (2022) introduced a novel approach to assess biases of visual attention, by measuring pupillary constriction in response to split-field stimuli, in which a bright patch is presented to one visual field and a dark patch to the oth...Social sciencesGemma Learmonth Christoph Strauch2023-07-12 18:27:28 View
22 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
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Michotte's research on perceptual impressions of causality: a pre-registered replication study

Gaining confidence in Michotte’s classic studies on the perception of causality

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Maxine Sherman and 1 anonymous reviewer
​​​Making causal judgements are part of everyday life, whether seeking to understand the action of complex humans or the relations between inanimate objects in our environments. Albert Michotte’s (1963) classic book, The perception of causality, contained an extensive report of experiments demonstrating not only that observers perceive causality of inanimate shapes, but do so in manifold ways, creating different “causal impressions.” This work has been highly influential across psychology and neuroscience.
 
In the current study, White (2023) proposes a series of experiments to replicate and extend Michotte’s work. Despite the fact that this research is foundational to current work on perception and understanding of causal relations, it has never been subjected to rigorous replication. Moreover, like many research studies from that era, Michotte was sparse on details about methodology and did not rely on statistical analysis. White has proposed an ambitious set of 14 experiments that directly replicate and, in some cases, extend Michotte’s experiments. 
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was evaluated over three rounds of in-depth review, the first two rounds consisting of detailed comments from two reviewers and the third round consisting of a close read by the recommender. Based on detailed responses to the reviewers' comments, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 1 criteria and was therefore awarded in-principle acceptance (IPA). 
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/5jx8f (under temporary private embargo)
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that will be used to answer the research question yet exists and no part will be generated until after IPA.
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
 
References
 
1. Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T. R. Miles & E. Miles, trans.). London: Methuen. (English translation of Michotte, 1954).
 
2. White, P. A. (2023). Michotte's research on perceptual impressions of causality: A registered replication study. In principle acceptance of Version 3 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/5jx8f 
Michotte's research on perceptual impressions of causality: a pre-registered replication studyPeter A. White<p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Michotte (1946/1954/1963) showed that visual impressions of causality can occur in perception of simple animations of moving geometrical objects. In the launching effect, one object is perceived as maki...Life Sciences, Social sciencesMoin Syed2023-05-03 13:04:00 View
22 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
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Implicit Ideologies: Do Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Predict Implicit Attitudes?

Do social dominance orientation and right wing authoritarianism similarly predict both explicit and implicit attitudes?

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Luisa Liekefett, Oluwaseyi Adeliyi, Abiola Akinnubi and 1 anonymous reviewer
Measurement is a vital activity for all research areas, but we so often fail to provide sufficient clarity, rigor and transparency about it, undermining the validity of our studies' conclusions (Flake & Fried, 2020). This concern is of wide societal interest when applied to the domains of ideology and attitudes where measurements of both implicit and explicit attitudes are assumed to reflect the same underlying concept. The extent to which this can be accepted is undermined by mixed evidence demonstrating a lack of consensus on the extent to which relevant psychological factors similarly predict both implicit and explicit attitudes.
 
In the proposed study, Reid & Inbar (2023) question these assumptions through use of the Project Implicit dataset, exploring the extent to which social dominance orientation (SDO) and right wing authoritarianism (RWA) similarly predict implicit and explicit attitudes. This work is ideally suited for publication through the Registered Reports format because whilst we may expect that relationships between SDO/RWA are similar in effect size across measures of both implicit and explicit attitude (because they tap into the same underlying attitude), there is great scope to acknowledge a more complex set of findings which may not be immediately interpretable or coherent. The proposed work will help us unpack further the assumptions surrounding measurement of attitudes and can help us better understand the extent to which SDO and RWA predict atittudes. 
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was evaluated over three rounds of in-depth review. Based on detailed responses to the reviewers' comments, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 1 criteria and therefore awarded in-principle acceptance (IPA).
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/zv4jw
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 5. All of the data or evidence that will be used to answer the research question already exist, but are currently inaccessible to the authors and thus unobservable prior to IPA (e.g. held by a gatekeeper) 
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
 
References:
 
1. Flake, J. K. & Fried, E. I. (2020). Measurement schmeasurement: Questionable measurement practices and how to avoid them. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 3, 456-465. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245920952393
 
2. Reid, J. & Inbar, Y. (2023). Implicit Ideologies: Do Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Predict Implicit Attitudes? In principle acceptance of Version 3 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/zv4jw
Implicit Ideologies: Do Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Predict Implicit Attitudes? Jesse S Reid, Yoel Inbar<p>A wide variety of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours can be predicted by political ideology – and more specifically, by the two ideological scales of Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA; a preference for authority and tradition) and Social Dominanc...Social sciencesThomas Evans2023-04-08 01:53:30 View
18 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
toto

Putting things into perspective: Which visual cues facilitate automatic extraretinal symmetry representation?

Understanding how visual cues influence extraretinal representation of planar symmetry

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO and ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Tadamasa Sawada, Guillaume Rousselet, Benoit Cottereau and Deborah Apthorp
Visual symmetry is critical to our interaction with our environment so that when detected, symmetry automatically produces a neural marker in the form of an Event Related Potential (ERP) called Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN). However, when symmetry is presented to the visual system slanted away from the viewer, there is a reduction in SPN, termed a perspective cost. 
 
Considering ​objects are rarely presented front-on (or frontoparallel) in our natural environment, Karakashevska et al., (2023) plan to examine the extent of the perspective cost with the addition of visual cues to facilitate extraretinal representation of the visual symmetry. The authors will record electroencephalography (EEG) from 120 participants while they perform a luminance task on symmetrical and asymmetrical stimuli. The authors hypothesize perspective cost will be reduced by three perspective cues: 1) monocular viewing, when cue conflict caused by binocular viewing is eliminated, 2) a static frame surrounding the symmetrical stimulus, adding a depth cue, and 3) a moving frame, assisting 3D perception prior to the symmetry onset. If the SPN is equivalent during frontoparallel and slanted presentation in a cue condition, the authors will conclude extraretinal representation can be automatic when sufficient visual cues are available. The proposed experiment is powered to detect a relatively small difference between perspective cue conditions. This will solidify fundamental research on visual symmetry processing and will further our understanding of object perception and recognition. 
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was evaluated over three rounds by four expert reviewers. Following in-depth review and responses from the authors, the recommenders have determined that Stage 1 criteria was met and have awarded in-principle acceptance (IPA). 
​​​​
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/yzsq5
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 6. No part of the data or evidence that will be used to answer the research question yet exists and no part will be generated until after IPA.
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
 
References
 
1. Karakashevska, E., Bertamini, M. & Makin, A. D. J. (2023). Putting things into perspective: Which visual cues facilitate automatic extraretinal symmetry representation? [Stage 1 Registered Report]. In principle acceptance of Version 4 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/yzsq5
Putting things into perspective: Which visual cues facilitate automatic extraretinal symmetry representation?Elena Karakashevska, Marco Bertamini and Alexis D.J. Makin <p>A challenge for the visual brain is to identify objects from a range of different viewpoints. This study will determine the conditions under which the brain spends computational resources to achieve view-invariance. We focus on view-invariant r...Life SciencesGrace Edwards2023-04-17 21:52:26 View
15 Oct 2023
STAGE 1
toto

Can one-shot learning be elicited from unconscious information?

Can unconscious experience drive perceptual learning?

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Jeffrey Saunders and 1 anonymous reviewer
Unconscious priming effects have fascinated not just psychologists but also ad-makers and consumers alike. A related phenomenon in perception is illustrated by presenting participants with two-tone images, which are degraded versions of images of objects and scenes. These two-tone images look like and are indeed judged as meaningless dark and light patches. Upon presenting the actual template image, however, the two-tone image is accurately recognized. This perceptual learning is abrupt, robust, and long-lasting (Daoudi et al., 2017). Surprisingly, Chang et al. (2016) showed that such perceptual disambiguation of two-tone images can happen even in the absence of conscious awareness of having seen the template image. 
 
Halchin et al. (2023) in the current study propose to conduct a conceptual replication of Chang et al. (2016) with important modifications to the procedures to address limitations with the earlier work. Specifically, there was no explicit manipulation of levels of conscious awareness of the template images in the original study. Therefore, miscategorization of low-confidence awareness as unaware could have led to an erroneous conclusion about unconscious priors guiding perceptual learning. Such miscategorization errors and how to tackle them are of interest to the broader field of consciousness studies. Furthermore, a conceptual replication of Chang et al. (2016) is also timely given that prior related work suggests that masking impairs not only conscious awareness of visual features but also blocks processing of higher-level information about the images (e.g. object category). 
 
To address the issues identified above, Halchin et al. (2023) propose to experimentally manipulate conscious awareness by masking the template image very quickly (i.e., a short stimulus onset asynchrony; SOA) or by allowing some more time to induce weak and strong conscious awareness, respectively. The SOAs were validated through pilot studies. Furthermore, they include a four-point perceptual awareness scale instead of the original yes/no options to gauge participants’ subjective awareness of the template images. The authors also propose multiple experiments to include different ways of testing participants’ objective ability to identify the masked template images. Last but not least, the proposed design includes a stronger control condition than the original study by using masked images created from related images (e.g. belonging to the same semantic category). Depending on the results obtained in the main experiments, the inclusion of this control allows the authors to conduct a third experiment to investigate whether the results in the first two can be explained by semantic priming. The proposed study is sufficiently powered (as demonstrated through simulations), and Bayesian statistical procedures will be used to test the main hypotheses. In summary, the proposed work offers a significant improvement in terms of experimental procedures over the original study. If the Chang et al. (2016) results are replicated, the stronger design in the current study is likely to lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying unconscious priors guiding perceptual learning. On the other hand, a failure to replicate not just Chang et al. (2016)’s results but also effects across the three experiments in the current study would raise legitimate questions about the reality of unconscious information guiding perceptual learning. 
 
The study plan was refined across two rounds of review, with input from two external reviewers who both agreed that the proposed study is well designed, timely, and scientifically valid. The recommender then reviewed the revised manuscript and judged that the study met the Stage 1 criteria for in-principle acceptance (IPA).
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/juckg
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 3. At least some of the data/evidence that will be used to answer the research question already exists AND is accessible in principle to the authors BUT the authors certify that they have not yet accessed any part of that data/evidence.
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
 
References
 
1. Daoudi, L. D., Doerig, A., Parkosadze, K., Kunchulia, M. & Herzog, M. H. (2017). The role of one-shot learning in #TheDress. Journal of Vision, 17, 15-15. https://doi.org/10.1167/17.3.15 
 
2. Chang, R., Baria, A. T., Flounders, M. W., & He, B. J. (2016). Unconsciously elicited perceptual prior. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1093/nc/niw008 
 
3. Halchin, A.-M., Teuful, C. & Bompas, A. (2023). Can one-shot learning be elicited from unconscious information? In principle acceptance of Version 3 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/juckg
Can one-shot learning be elicited from unconscious information? Adelina-Mihaela Halchin, Christoph Teufel, Aline Bompas<p>The human brain has the remarkable ability to make sense of highly impoverished images once relevant prior information is available. Fitting examples of this effect are two-tone images, which initially look like meaningless black-and-white patc...Life SciencesVishnu Sreekumar2022-11-30 00:34:07 View
28 Sep 2023
STAGE 1
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Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Women’s Sexuality and Well-Being: Estimating Treatment Effects and Their Heterogeneity Based on Longitudinal Data

The Causal Effects of Hormonal Contraceptives on Psychological Outcomes

Recommended by ORCID_LOGO based on reviews by Summer Mengelkoch and 2 anonymous reviewers
Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights is a global concern, exemplified by goal 5.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (UN General Assembly, 2015). Whilst the range of contraceptive options have increased, our understanding of the impacts of use for women are inadequate and represent a key barrier to positive change in policies and practices. In particular, we have few consensuses on the expected impacts of hormonal contraceptive use on women's sexuality and wellbeing.
 
In the current programmatic submission, Botzet et al. (2023) argue that this inconclusive evidence base could be due to the wide heterogeneity in responses, the impacts of this heterogeneity upon attrition, differences in contraceptive methods and dosage effects, confounders, and the potential for reverse causality. Tackling some of these potential factors, Botzet (2023) explore whether hormonal contraceptive use influences sexuality and well-being outcomes, and whether (and to what extent) the effects vary between women. To achieve this they have proposed analysis of longitudinal data from the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) which includes annual waves of data collection from >6500 women, with separate Stage 2 submissions planned to report findings based on sexuality and well-being. The proposed work will progress our understanding of the impact of hormonal contraceptives by overcoming limitations of more common research approaches in this field, and has the potential to contribute to a more contextualised view of the impact of their impacts in real-world practice.
 
The Stage 1 manuscript was evaluated over three rounds of in-depth review. Based on detailed responses to the reviewers' comments, the recommender judged that the manuscript met the Stage 1 criteria and therefore awarded in-principle acceptance (IPA).
 
URL to the preregistered Stage 1 protocol: https://osf.io/kj3h2
 
Level of bias control achieved: Level 3: At least some of the data/evidence that will be used to answer the research question already exists AND is accessible in principle to the authors BUT the authors certify that they have not yet accessed any part of that data/evidence.
 
List of eligible PCI-RR-friendly journals:
 
References
 
Botzet, L. J., Rohrer, J. M., Penke, L. & Arslan, R. C. (2023). Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Women's Sexuality and Well-Being: Estimating Treatment Effects and Their Heterogeneity Based on Longitudinal Data. In principle acceptance of Version 3 by Peer Community in Registered Reports. https://osf.io/kj3h2
 
UN General Assembly (2015). Transforming our world : the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, A/RES/70/1. Available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/57b6e3e44.html [accessed 27 September 2023]
Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Women’s Sexuality and Well-Being: Estimating Treatment Effects and Their Heterogeneity Based on Longitudinal DataLaura J. Botzet, Julia M. Rohrer, Lars Penke, and Ruben C. Arslan<p>Different women experience hormonal contraceptives differently, reporting side effects on their sexuality and well-being that range from negative to positive. But research on such causal effects of hormonal contraceptives on psychological outco...Social sciencesThomas Evans2022-11-30 13:20:14 View